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Chandpur Ehatmali. Tehsil. Dalmau. District. Raebareli. State. Uttar Pradesh. Nearest railway station/airport along with distance in kms. Dalmau Junction . place as the available facilities are sufficient enough. Closure or diversion of existing transport routes or infrastructure leading to changes in traffic movements ?. Bangladesh. My sincere thanks goes to UNICEF Bangladesh for their continuous support at all stages of conducting . indicators and could not have been made available at a better time as countries across the globe will report on the .. To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in. Chandpur (চাঁদপুর জেলা) is a district in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh. It is a part of the Chittagong Division. It was part of greater Comilla District until Contents. [hide]. 1 Demographics; 2 Administrative subdivisions. Upazilas. 3 Education; 4 See also; 5 References. Demographics. The population of.
December 06, ; Accepted date: January 20, ; Published date: Int J Econ Manag Sci 4: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. A study was undertaken to examine the marketing system and price behavior of Hilsha fish in selected areas of Chandpur district of Bangladesh during the month of March-April The objectives of the study were to estimate costs and margins, seasonal price variation and to test market integration of Hilsha fish.
Primary and secondary data were used for this study. The higher marketing cost was incurred by aratdars and the lowest by retailer.
On the other hand, retailers earned the highest net marketing margins. Analysis of market integration shows that Hilsha fish market in Bangladesh was well integrated. The findings of the study revealed that the marketing of Hilsha was a profitable business and some recommendations were provided for the improvement of Hilsha marketing in the country.
Engle granger co-integration; Market integration; Marketing system; Price behavior; Hilsha; Chandpur. Hilsa shad, one of All Dating Sites Available Around Chandpur Times Up Movement most important tropical fish of the family clupeidae under the genus Tenualosa and species ilisha is anadromous in nature, not a link phenomenon in tropical water compared to temperate and arctic regions, lives in the sea for most of its life, but migrates at least 1, km up in some river system in Indian sub-continent for spawning behavior.
Distances of km are more typical in Bangladesh. Therefore economic contribution from this single species of fish is very high, in an agricultural based country like Bangladesh.
Large number of different types of water bodies both inland All Dating Sites Available Around Chandpur Times Up Movement marine makes Bangladesh one of the most suitable countries of the world for freshwater aquaculture. The freshwater inland aquaculture production in Bangladesh is the second highest in the world after China [ 1 ].
The total annual fish production is estimated at 2. In Bangladesh, fish farming is currently one of the most important sectors of the national economy. Within the overall agro-based economy of the country, the contribution of fish production has been considered to hold good promise for creating jobs, earning foreign currency and supplying protein.
A large number of people, many of whom living below the poverty line, find employment in the domestic fish marketing chain in the form of farmers, processors, traders, intermediaries, day laborers and transporters [ 156 ]. Traditionally, people of Bangladesh like to eat fresh fish.
However, chilled and dried fish are also marketed currently in large quantities in the towns and cities. The export market of value added products is highly competitive, involving changes in type of products, forms and packaging as well as consumer behavior.
Export of fish, shrimp and other fishery products were considered as non-conventional items before the independence of the country. It has increased many-folds during the last decades and the country is earning foreign exchange to source the trade gap. In this case the dried coastal and marine fish, the marine finfish and organism even other than fish, could be on the top of the list of export earning items.
Since fish production in Bangladesh is increasing over the years, its disposal pattern is very important as growers, wholesalers, That Weird Anime Horse Dating Simulator Ariane Tips and consumers- all are affected due to value addition in the marketing process.
Total cost of intermediaries at chandpur: Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles containing Bengali-language text Coordinates on Wikidata. Chandpur District is divided into the following sub-districts upazilas: Figure within shows t-values of the regression coefficient.
For the sustainability of these stakeholders, fish marketing studies are very necessary. Thus, the present study is conducted to examine the fish marketing system, supply chain and value addition to determine the pulling factors for enhancing production, processing and marketing of different species of fishes in Bangladesh.
The specific check this out of the study were to examine the existing marketing system of Hilsha fish, to examine cost and margins at different stages of marketing channels, to examine the price behavior in terms of seasonal price variation, to analyse the market integration of hilsha fish to identify the major problems of Hilsha fish marketing and suggest some remedial measures.
Thus the study was conducted for understanding the present situation of marketing system of Hilsha fish in different regions of Bangladesh with following objectives. The present study was conducted based on field survey method wherein primary data were collected from the respondents.
The study area is confined to one Upazilas namely Chandpur Sadar in Chandpur district, where the cultivation of Hilsha fish was concentrated. Purposive sampling techniques were used for selecting the sample.
Total sample size of the study was Selected samples consisted of 40 fish farmers and 80 traders. The intermediaries dealing with Http://meetgirls.date/kibe/is-there-a-law-against-dating.php marketing were categorized into three groups, namely, Aratdar, Paiker and retailer.
From different stages of fish marketing, 10 Aratdars 8 LC Letter of Credite paiker, 20 Paikers and 42 retailers were selected as respondents for the study. The data were collected intensively by using structured interview schedules. Latter it was converted into monthly figures. The main objective of price policy is to safeguard the interests of producers and consumers.
He gets fair prices if markets are well integrated. The basic idea behind the measurement of market integration is to understand the interaction among prices in spatially separated markets. Thus integrated markets are defined as markets in which prices of differentiated products do not behave independently. If price movement of a commodity in one market is completely irrelevant to forecast price movements of the same commodity in other markets, the markets are characterized as segmented.
So it is very important to understand whether commodity markets function efficiently. Markets function efficiently when these are integrated in price relationships and it is also imperative to see whether infrastructural and technological development in communication system has improved the functioning of commodity markets. Measurement of Market Integration by Co-integration Method: The bulk of econometric theories have been based on the assumption that the underlying data process is stationary a stochastic process is said to be stationary if its mean and variance are constant over time and the please click for source of covariance between two time periods depends only on the distance or gap or lag between the two time periods and not the actual time at which the covariance is computed [ 9 ].
In practice, most economic time series are non-stationary. All Dating Sites Available Around Chandpur Times Up Movement overcome such problems, the concept of co-integration was used because it offers a means of identifying and hence avoiding the spurious. In a high inflationary situation like Bangladesh, use of nominal price to use in estimation to correlation coefficient pair wise would be misleading as the force of inflation over the years for which, estimated coefficients may tend to show high degree of association between pair of prices of two markets.
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So, link advanced method of assessing market integration like co-integration method was also needed and that was used in this study. The underlying principle of co-integration analysis is that, although trend of many economic series show upward or downwards over time in a non-stationary fashion, group of variables may drift together.
Unit Root and Co-integration Test: Learn more here individual price series were tested for the order of integration to determine whether they are stationary which is known as the unit root test .
For theoretical and practical reasons, the Dickey—Fuller test is applied to regressions run in the following forms:. In conducting the DF test as in 12or 3it was assumed that the error term etwas uncorrelated. The ADF test here consists of estimating if the error term etis auto correlated, one modifies 4 as follows:. The number of lagged difference terms to include is often determined empirically, the idea being to include enough terms so that the error term in 4 is serially uncorrelated.
To test the market integration, the following co-integration regression was run for each pair of price series:.
Http://meetgirls.date/kibe/divorce-rates-by-length-of-dating.php test of market integration is straightforward if Yi and Yj are stationary variables but if the price series proved as non-stationary then we have to done another test Engle-Granger test.
Testing whether the variables are co-integrated is merely another unit root test on the residual in equation 5.
The co-efficient of variation of monthly price indices of Hilsha in Chandpur market of that period was 3. So it is very important to understand whether commodity markets function efficiently. Retailers sell the entire fish to ultimate consumers.
However, since the Yi and Yj are individually non-stationary, there is the possibility that the regression is spurious. The test involved regression the first-difference of the residual lagged level and lagged dependent variables Engle- Granger test is as follows:. From the result of the study, a complete Hilsha marketing system in Chandpur region were found, which include fish farmers, channel of and Dhaka City. Retailers sell the entire fish to ultimate consumers.
Percent of hilsha fish transacted by value chain actors.
Table 2 shows that in the case of shrimp, most of the farmers, aratdar, bepari and retailers are self-financed. Depot owners use a combination of own funds, bank loans, NGO and aratdars for shrimp marketing.
However, a majority of depot owners use their own fund for the business. Sources of finance of hilsha fish farmers and intermediaries. In the study areas all intermediaries here were involved in the buying and selling of Hilsha fish followed the open bargaining method for fixing the price of their products.
The fish farmers enjoyed low bargaining power because of many factors such as perishes ability of product, absence of storage facilities and immediate need for cash. The number of buyers attending the market and the volume of product offered for sale mainly determined the price at market level.
In the wholesale market, price varied with the variation of quality of and size of fish. At Arat level prices were fixed through auction. In that case, prices were determined on the basis of supply and demand.
Total cost of intermediaries at chandpur: Transportation is the highest cost per maund for inter district All Dating Sites Available Around Chandpur Times Up Movement, local paikers and retailers in the study areas.
In hilsha marketing system, the highest value added cost go here maund of fish sold is incurred by LC paiker Taka Aratdari commission is the highest cost item for inter district Beparis, LC paikers and local paikers. Transportation cost constituted the highest component for retailers Taka Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved in hilsha marketing at Chandpur per maund Source: Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved in hilsha marketing at Dhaka City per maund Source: In the study area of Chadpur district, net marketing margins of all intermediaries for hilsha are shown in Table Amongst all intermediaries, profit of retailers is the highest Taka In the Dhaka city market amongst all intermediaries, profit of retailers is the highest Taka Profit of intermediaries varies due to variation in their costs, purchase price and sales price Table 5.
The monthly wholesale price indices of Hilsha for Chandpur and Comilla market have been presented in Table 6. It is evident from Table that the price index of Hilsha was the highest The important feature of Hilsha fish prices was more or less same during November to February.
This implies that during this period the supply matched the demand for Hilsha fish. After slight increasing in the March it continue up to the month of the June. The difference between highest and lowest indices was The co-efficient of variation of monthly price indices of Hilsha in Chandpur market of that period was 3. In the Dhaka market the highest price index was Price of Hilsha fluctuated in different months.